Document 2: Pre-1950 Sources Demonstrating Early Uses of Silver
Robert C. Holladay, MS
Copyright 2004 Robert C. Holladay
(1) Fortescue-Brickdale, J.M.
a review of some of its clinical applications, with experiments on its antiseptic
Fortescue-Brickdale gives a brief background on Collargol, reviews clinical results he has collected from the medical literature, and describes an in vitro test which he performed.
The use of silver in medicine was brought to prominence by Crede of Dresden, Germany in 1897. He used silver salts on wounds, and then later used Collargol. Crede hypothesized that Collargol had an antiseptic action on internal pathogens.
Collargol is a black, metallic substance that forms a black liquid when diluted with water in a ratio. The solution is not stable, but keeps well in the dark, especially if protein is added.
Describes an article in which Brunner observed a leukocytosis in rabbits after intravenous injection of Collargol. The leukocytosis begins six hours after injection, reaches its peak at 24 hours, and disappeared after 48 hours.
In the medical literature, the observers agree that Collargol is rapidly excreted, and deleterious symptoms do not occur.
In the literature Fortescue-Brickdale reviewed, he states that a topical ointment containing 15% Collargol was commonly used, and intravenous injections typically consisted of 5-10 cc of a 1% solution.
The clinical results from 44 cases in the medical literature are described. In 6 cases treatments other than Collargol are credited with the results. Those 6 cases consisted of rheumatic pericarditis, tuberculosis, anthrax, cerebro-spinal meningitis, tuberculosis knee, and furunculosis. In four cases the diagnosis of the authors are questioned. 5 cases are listed in which the influence of Collargol was doubtful: pneumococcal pneumonia, intestinal complications, erysipelas, phthisis, and scarlet fever. Eighteen cases are listed in which the Collargol had no effect: 6 cases of puerperal fever, 2 cases of streptococcal empyema, glandular abscesses, furunculosis, popliteal abscess, middle ear suppuration, 5 cases of tuberculosis meningitis. 17 cases were “favorably influenced by Collargol”: 3 cases of septic endometritis, empyema, 5 cases of furunculosis, 3 cases of septic endocarditis, perinephric abscess, chronic arthritis, osteomyelitis, acute rheumatism, extensive gangrene. In cases where treatment with Collargol was favorable, the positive result was usually a reduction in temperature.
An in vitro experiment was conducted by Fortescue-Brickdale. 4 cc of broth and 1 cc of Collargol was placed in a test tube containing 3 pathogens and incubated at 37 degrees C. After 24 hours the results were as follows: 1% Collargol solution yielded no growth of B. anthracis, S. aureus, or S. pyogenes. 0.1% Collargol yielded no growth S. pyogenes and slight growth of B. anthracis and S. aureus. .03% Collargol yielded no growth of S. pyogenes, and growth of S. aureus and B. anthracis. .02% Collargol yielded growth of all 3 microorganisms. Over 70 test tubes were prepared and tested.
Another in vitro experiment was conducted by Fortescue-Brickdale in which four glycerine agar plates were cultured with Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Different Collargol solutions were added and the plates were incubated for another 24 hours. The 1% Collargol solution yielded no growth, while the .5%, .1%, and .05% solutions yielded growth of both microorganisms.
Fortescue-Brickdale states that the power of all antiseptics is decreased by albumin in the blood and therefore Collargol should have a lesser effect in the bloodstream than in a test tube with agar or broth. Considering the large quantity of blood in the human body, Fortescue-Brickdale concludes that Collargol has never been introduced into the body in sufficiently large quantities to disinfect the blood.
Comment: Literature review seems to be thorough, the 44 cases he reviewed were almost certainly anecdotal.
(2) Crichton, Macpherson. 1903. Some clinical experiences with Argyrol, the new gonococcidal remedy. Medical Century. 11: 132-133.
Silver solutions named Albargin, Argonin, Protargol, Uragol, Largin, Argentimin, and Argyrol are mentioned. Protargol contains 8% silver while Argyrol contains 30% silver. Claims that Argyrol does not irritate the urethra when applied to treat gonorrhea. Describes the treatment of five young males with gonorrhea. Argyrol was inserted into the urethral canal. In case 1, gonorrhea was cured in one week. Case 2 was not helped by any silver solutions employed. Case 3 was cured in 2 weeks. Case 4 was cured in 48 hours. Case 5 was cured in two weeks.
(3) Cohen, Soloman. 1906.
The mechanism of action of colloidal silver (CS) is unknown. By using CS intravenously and rectally, recoveries were seen from malignant endocarditis and other infections. CS must be made from sterilized, distilled water, with a solution strength of 2-5%. 1-4 cc should be injected intravenously once or twice per day. CS is useful in treating pneumonia, typhoid fever, and tuberculosis. German physicians recommend using 2 grains of CS twice daily orally and once daily by rectum. It is important to use CS promptly when infection occurs.
Silver vitellin solutions containing 10-50% silver vitellin can be administered orally in doses of 5-10 grains. Silver vitellin is useful in treating gonorrhea, tonsillitis, gastric ulcers, mucus colitis, and membranous enteritis.
Comment: one grain = 64.79 milligrams.
(4) Van Zandt, I.L.
Van Zandt gives a brief background on Collargolum, details his own experiences with it, and reviews the results from the published medical literature.
Collargol was developed by Crede. It is administered intravenously, orally, and rectally. Crede claims that with a 15% ointment placed on the skin, the silver will be dissolved and circulated to all parts of the body. Van Zandt does not recommend subcutaneous injections of Collargol.
A patient with septicemia was given 45 grains Collargol daily. Improvement was seen in 24 hours, and more improvement was seen in a week. In another patient the topical application of ointment on glands inflamed with scarlatina drastically reduced swelling and pain within 24 hours. Application of the ointment resulted in a rapid recovery from phlebitis. Topical application of the ointment on an open, inflamed wound resulted in a cessation of pain within 24 hours and a cessation of swelling in 40 hours.
Van Zandt also reports Collargol being useful in treating erysipelas, bubo, paronychia, and acute salpingitis. 13 cases of typhoid fever were treated with Collargol, with an average of 19.8 days from first to last visit. In patients with elevated temperatures, the Collargol had a favorable effect on the temperature.
Schmidt reports giving 2 intravenous injections containing 1 grain Collargol to a patient with endocarditis, pneumonia, and pleurisy. Permanent improvement was seen after the third day, when the second injection was administered. Another patient with febrile angina improved after injections of Collargol, but took 1 year to fully recover.
Bjorkman is quoted “This remedy is CS in concentrated or half-concentrated solution, by rectal or intravenous injection. It is remarkable to note the speedy descent of the fever curve.”
Stachowsky treated 16 cases of pneumonia with Collargol and had good results, but notes that in some cases it did not seem to have the desired effect.
Cohen’s report in the St. Louis Medical Review is mentioned, noting that he reported good results with pneumonia, typhoid, and meningitis.
Bong reports a rapid decrease in fever with injection of Collargol and stressed that it is important to administer Collargol at the very beginning of a deleterious medical condition.
Kirnberger reports a case of erysipelas in which Collargol was injected and the temperature went from 105 degrees to 100 degrees in a few hours.
Several authors report that Collargol will cure anthrax.
Mooseburger reports 70-80 cases of appendicitis treated with Collargol with only 2 deaths. Only two of his patients had recurring infections, both of which were about a year later.
There is a report of foot and mouth disease being cured after one injection.
(5) Simpson, W.J., and R. Tanner Hewlett. 1914. Experiments on the germicidal action of colloidal silver. Lancet 2: 1359.
An in vitro test was conducted in broth using a type of CS called Collosol, and mercuric chloride. The microorganism tested was typhoid bacillus. The Collosol exhibited germicidal properties, but did not perform as well as mercuric chloride. After 24 hours the 5 ppm Collosol solution did not inhibit the growth of the microorganism, but concentrations 10 ppm and higher did.
(6) Vanderkleed, Chas. E. and Fritz Heidelberg. 1914. Metal colloids-their increasing importance as remedial agents. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 3: 799-808.
Discusses methods of manufacturing colloidal solutions. It is not possible by mechanical means to grind particles fine enough to obtain a colloidal solution. A method of using electrolytic disintegration to manufacture colloidal solutions was first described by Bredig in 1898. An electric current is formed in water by placing two electrodes in the solution and passing an electric current in the form of an arc in between the two electrodes. Particles of the electrodes break off in a fine state and remain suspended in the water. By mixing certain chemicals, colloids can be formed by reduction
The colloids precipitate out of the solution over time, but this can be prevented by adding an organic colloid such as albumin. The organic colloids form a layer around the inorganic colloids and prevent precipitation. Solutions of organic and inorganic colloids are called “protective colloids”.
The experiments of three French authors are described. In animals and men, the injection of CS causes no increase in phagocytosis after one hour, but a decided increase occurs after 24 hours.
(7) Marshall, C.R. and Killoh, G.B. 1915. The bactericidal action of Collosols of silver and mercury. British Medical Journal. 1: 102-104.
Unknown quantities of Collosol argentum were tested in vitro against various organisms in broth and agar. Other disinfectants Collosol hydrargyrum, mercuric chloride and silver nitrate were generally found to be more bactericidal than Collosol argentum.
(8) Roe, A. Legge. 1915. Collosol argentum and its ophthalmic uses. British Medical Journal. 1: 104.
“Collosol argentum is a clear sherry-coloured liquid, and, as described by the makers, is a solution containing the metal silver in a colloid form. The silver is present in a metallic state…It is claimed for this preparation that no microbe is known that is not killed in laboratory experiments in six minutes…The opinion that I have formed as to its value may be summed up in a very few words: It is the most useful preparation that has been placed in our hands since the introduction of cocaine.”
(9) Brown, G. Van Amber. 1916. Colloidal silver in sepsis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children. 73: 136-143.
Silver has a tendency to react with chlorides and phosphates in the blood plasma. Electrargol is a type of CS prepared by electrolysis. Electrargol has bactericidal properties and stimulates leukocytes to phagocytosis.
A vaguely-described experiment was performed in which rabbits from group A were injected with .5 cc streptococcus emulsion intraperitoneally. Most died after 7 days. Rabbits from group B were injected with 3 cc Electrargol 12 hours before injecting them with streptococcus emusion. Most rabbits from group B did not die.
Collargol is made from chemical precipitation, not electrolysis.
(10) McDonagh, J.E.R. 1917. The action and role of colloids in chemotherapy. British Journal of Dermatology and Syphilis. 29: 93-100.
CS is effective in treating hemorroids, chilblains, and trench feet. It is superior to most antiseptics in use and is a useful wound dressing.
(11) Morris, Malcolm. 1917. The therapeutic effects of colloidal preparations. British Medical Journal. 1: 617.
Argentum causes pain and discoloration of the skin, whereas Collosol silver does not. Collosol silver produces remarkable results with enlarged prostate, irritation of the bladder, pruritis ani, perineal eczema, hemorroids, bromidrosis, warts, and diarrhea.
(12) Culiver, Harry. 1918. The gonococcidal action of protein silver solution in vitro. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. 3: 487-493.
An in vitro experiment is performed in which the antimicrobial action of four silver protein solutions are tested against gonococci. The minimum amount of silver protein necessary achieve a 100% kill rate after 30 minutes was determined as follows: Argyrol 1/8%; Protargol 1/32%; Silvol 1/32%; Nargol 1/32%.
After exposing the silver protein solutions to ordinary daylight for two months the experiment was repeated. The minimum amount of silver protein necessary achieve a 100% kill rate after 30 minutes was determined as follows: Argyrol ¼%; Protargol 1/16%; Silvol ½%; Nargol 1/16%.
After exposing the silver protein solutions to a temperature of 120 degrees F the minimum amount of silver protein necessary achieve a 100% kill rate after 30 minutes was determined as follows: Argyrol 1/16%; Protargol 1/8%; Silvol 1/8%; Nargol 1/8%.
Culiver states that protein solutions deteriorate with age and exposure to heat.
(13) No author listed. 1919. Collosol Preparations. Journal of the American Medical Association. 72: 1694.
The council on pharmacy and chemistry reports that numerous Collosol preparations including Collosol argentum are “ inadmissible to New and Nonofficial Remedies because their composition is uncertain.” States that the term “Collosol” “appears to be a group designation for what are claimed to be permanent colloidal solutions…The recklessness of the claims is further illustrated by the advice that these indefinite mixtures of poisonous metals can be injected in unlimited quantities.” When tested, the Collosol cocaine product contained .4% whereas the label stated it was 1%.
(14) Van Zandt, I.L.
“among my positive successes: septicemia, scarlet fever, tonsillitis, middle ear and mastoid infections, typhoid fever, fevers of uncertain etiology, mixed infection pneumonia, catarrhal jaundice, palmar infections, puerpal infections, lymphangitis, salpyngitis, erysipelas, cystitis, crural phlebitis and pyelitis with chills and high fever”. Claims that if taken with food, the Collargol “becomes inert or an irritant by combining with the acid of digestion, or from the food.”
(15) Lancaster, Walter B.
“Argyrol was introduced in
1902. It was originally made by
extracting gliadin from wheat and treating it under
pressure in an autoclave, obtaining thereby a white granular precipitate, which
is said to be of the nature of a vitellin. When this is combined with silver, the
resulting product is a dark brown powder containing 30% of metal…According to
A committee of the British Medical Association has stated that “Argyrol has practically no bactericidal action whatsoever. It seems impossible to attribute the good effects which many clinicians have obtained with it its bactericidal action.”
(16) Owen, R. Cecil. 1920. Colloids and their use in medicine. The Pharmaceutical Journal and Pharmacist. 104:497-499.
States that CS is positively charged. Gelatin or starch must be added to stabilize the sol . “Sols made by amateurs and irresponsible manufacturers are at once precipitated by blood serum and by other physiological fluids, whereas a sol designed for use in medicine should be so stabilized that it undergoes no premature degradation either on administration or when it meets the blood stream…Experiments on rabbits show that colloidal silver renders the subject immune from the effects of large quantities of titanic or diptheritic serum. Properly prepared, it is extremely stable.”
Comment: Owen does not provide ample evidence to substantiate his claims.
(17) Smith, Walter G. 1922. Principles of colloid therapeutics. Irish Journal of Medical Science. September: 293-302.
Liquid colloids are called “sols”. The therapeutic effects of several metal colloids are recommended. Colloidal copper has been used to treat cancer but “the evidence on this point is not yet convincing.”
“Some of the reported observations on colloid therapeutics are inconclusive, and probably exaggerated, and some of the preparations put upon the market at first were carelessly prepared and were unstable.”
(18) Brams, Julius. 1923. The effects of injecting Collargol into the vas deferens. Journal of Urology. 10: 393-404.
“The destructive action of Collargol on the tissues has been demonstrated in connection with its use as an opaque medium for making pyelograms. Eisendrath (7) has pointed out the action of this substance on the kidney parenchyma when injected into the kidney pelvis.”
An unspecified amount of Collargol is injected into the vas deferens of 5 dogs. “The injection of 5 per cent Collargol into the vas deferens causes an intense acute inflammatory reaction which results in destruction of the epithelial cells lining the lumen, edema of the mucosa and muscularis, and a dense round cell infiltration into these layers.”
(19) Ballenger, Edgar G. and Elder, Omar F. 1923. Colloidal preparations, especially colloidal silver chlorid. Southern Medical Journal. 16:114-117.
Regarding colloids: “There is a tendency for them to coalesce and make bodies of large size which may finally become so heavy that they sink to the bottom and lose their motility. This occurs in from a few days to a few years…There must always be a disadvantage in the use of colloidal preparations intravenously because they require substances like acacia, which is a vegetable protein, and every now and then gives a disagreeable serum reaction.”
Comment: No sources are cited to substantiate these statements.
(20) Pilcher, J.D. and Torald Sollmann. 1923. Organic, protein and colloidal silver compounds; their antiseptic efficiency and silver-ion content as a basis for their classification. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. 8: 301-310.
The antiseptic ability of silver nitrate is limited by the irritation it causes. CS is not an irritant. The germicidal power of CS is attributed to the liberation of small amounts of silver ions. Silver nitrate is an irritant because of the massive quantities of silver ions it releases. Dreser demonstrated that the germicidal capabilities of CS is eliminated when it is mixed with agents that reducer ionic silver to metallic silver, such as zinc dust, hydroquinon, pyrogallol, or by substances that bind ionic silver such as sodium thiosulphate, potassium cyanide, or sodium chloride. Gros postulated that in spite of lower concentrations of ions, the silver chloride from colloidal silver proteins forms a finer precipitate, and therefore would redissolve faster than silver precipitated from silver nitrate. Colloidal silver protein is therefore a better disinfectant but this would only occur with prolonged contact.
An experiment was conducted in which silver nitrate and 14 commercial brands of colloidal silver protein compounds were tested against yeast. The tests were conducted in water and 0.8% saline for a duration of 1 hour. When conducted in water, the silver solutions demonstrated a very wide range of efficacy. The amount necessary to inhibit yeast ranged from 1 mg to 150 mg with two distinct groups-those requiring roughly 2 mg and those requiring roughly 50 mg to inhibit the yeast. In the tests conducted in saline, the amount of silver product required to inhibit the yeast ranged from 40 mg to 300 mg with the majority requiring about 100 mg. There were no distinct groupings in the saline test. The amount of silver nitrate required to inhibit the yeast was 0.25 mg in water and 20 mg in saline.
The authors postulate that the yeast inhibiting properties of the various solutions is caused by the concentration of silver ions because silver chloride would be formed when the agents were placed in saline. They speculate that the efficacy of the silver nitrate is due to the massive concentrations of silver ions; the concentration of silver ions is so great in the silver nitrate that a portion of it remains free and does not react with the saline.
The authors rate the various colloidal silver protein solutions according to a ratio of nonionic but active silver to ionic silver. They speculate that the compounds with higher ratios would be more effective for continuous application.
The protein in colloidal silver protein has the potential to be a “dangerous provocative of anaphylactiod reactions in patients with specific protein-hypersusceptibility or on intravenous injection.”
(21) Sollman, Torald, and J.D. Pilcher 1924. Organic, protein and colloid silver compounds: Does the “colloidal silver” become available as antiseptic? Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. 10:38-42.
It has been shown that the ionic portion of a colloidal silver protein is the germicidal component. Previously it has been speculated that the non-ionic portion of a colloidal silver compound is a potential reserve of ionic silver and could become ionic. An experiment was performed to address this question. The authors assume that if the silver solutions are in contact with yeast, and the ions are exerting an antimicrobial action on it, the “reserve silver” will be converted into ionic silver.
Over a period of 6 hours, the authors measure the amount of gas produce by yeast surrounded by solutions of silver nitrate, Protargol, Argyrol, and Collargol. The rate of gas formation by yeast did not decrease with time, therefore the “reserve silver” was not converted into ionic silver, and the non-ionic silver in colloidal solutions remains inert.
A second experiment was performed in which amounts several silver compounds were added to yeast to barely inhibit gas formation. More yeast was added and the gas production increased enormously. The authors state that the first addition of yeast absorbed all the ionic silver, leaving nothing but non-ionic silver, and since the second addition of yeast was not inhibited, the non-ionic silver was not converted to ionic silver. Therefore the non-ionic portion of colloidal silver does not have antiseptic action.
(22) Sollmann, Torald, and J.D. Pilcher. 1924. Organic, protein and colloid silver compounds: Deterioration of the solutions on keeping. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. 10:103-105.
It is thought that organic silver compounds deteriorate with age, but there is no data to support this belief. Protargol, Argyrol, Silvol, and silver nitrate were tested for their efficiacy against yeast, stored for a year in “diffuse daylight”, and tested in water and saline periodically. Protargol progressively loses its antiseptic ability, while Argyrol and Silvol become more effective over time. The author concludes that ion concentration varies with age.
(23) Taylor, Haywood M. 1927. The application of the U.S.P. X yeast fermentation test to colloidal silver compounds. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 16: 820-824.
The works by Sollman and Pilcher (above) are questionable. The irritating and germicidal actions of silver nitrate are due to silver ions. Numerous experiments have been conducted by various individuals to establish the relative germicidal capabilities of various colloidal silver compounds, but the results have been contradictory, probably due to procedural error. Bacteria are more susceptible to CS preparations than yeast. The inhibition of yeast by CS is due entirely to silver ions.
An experiment was conducted in which the yeast-inhibiting capabilities of 9 commercially available CS preparations was determined. The antibacterial capabilities of those same compounds were determined against Staphylococcus aureus. No direct relationship exists between the abilities of CS compounds to inhibit yeast and bacteria. The concentration of silver ions is not directly related to the antibacterial abilities of CS preparations; there are other factors which have not yet been identified.
Comment: The experiment appears to be well done. It appears to have been done in bullion. However, the author offers no evidence to support his assumption that silver ions are the only part of CS that inhibits yeast. The only valid conclusions this author can make is that there is no direct relationship between the ability of CS to inhibit yeast and Staph aureus.
(24) Uegaki, Shingo. 1930. Influence of the blood constituents on the bactericidal power of colloidal silver. Japanese Journal of Experimental Medicine. 8: 573-613.
Ozar stated the bactericidal power of CS is due to the silver ion.
Kusunoki sated the bactericidal power of CS is due to the silver ion.
Acel found that the bactericidal action of CS is negated by the addition of ammonia sulfate, and concluded the bactericidal properties of CS are due to the silver ion.
CS was manufactured for the following experiments by mixing various chemicals.
Coli Bacillus #29 (Denken) was used in the following experiments performed by Shingo.
An experiment was performed in which sodium sulfate was added to CS and the bactericidal properties were severely inhibited. The author concludes that the bactericidal properties of CS are due to the silver ion.
An experiment was performed in which bacteria were added to a 5 ppm or 3.75 ppm CS solution. The CS “completely destroyed” the bacteria after 1 hour of contact and destroyed most of them after 45 minutes of contact.
Comment: Because of his dilution methods, it is not clear whether the solution contained 3.75 or 5 ppm.
An experiment was performed in which CS was added to bacteria in a 0.6% saline solution. When the concentration of the CS was 5 ppm or 3.3 ppm the bacteria were completely destroyed after 120 minutes, but not after 90 minutes. When the CS was at a concentration of 15 ppm or 11.25 ppm (dilution methods unclear) the bacteria were completely destroyed after 1 hour, but not after 45 minutes.
Comment: Human blood contains 0.6% saline.
An experiment was performed in which gelatin was added to CS. The bactericidal action of the CS decreased when gelatin was added.
An experiment was performed in which bacteria was added to 11 cc horse blood and 1 cc 400 ppm CS. The concentration of CS in the mixture of blood and CS was about 36 ppm. When the blood was kept at 37 degrees Celsius the CS was not able to destroy the bacteria even after 4 hours.
Shingo concludes that constituents of horse blood adsorb CS particles.
Comment: This is the only experiment in the pre-1950 literature, besides the 1930 Samaan article (Document 2, reference 25), in which it is obvious that the CS used did not contain a stabilizing agent such as protein.
(25) Samaan, Karam. 1930. A comparison of the germicidal power of colloidal metallic silver and of ionic silver. Quarterly Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 3: 21-24.
CS manufactured by electrolysis is superior to other methods of manufacture because it produces a pure product without by-products which might be difficult to separate.
CS was manufactured by electrolysis. An in vitro experiment was performed in which the bactericidal actions of CS and silver nitrate were compared. Bacillus Typhus was used in this test. The silver nitrate proved superior to CS. The silver ion from the silver nitrate is a more efficient disinfectant for Bacillus Typhus than colloidal metallic silver.
Comment: This CS was definitely not mixed with protein.
(26) Blumberg, Harold, and T. Nelson Carey. 1934. Argyremia. Journal of the American Medical Association. 103: 1521-1524.
“Many new cases have been caused by the intranasal and intra-oral administration of organic and inorganic silver compounds in colloidal form. In these instances argyria has resulted not so much from treatment by the medical profession but from the lay practice of administering the preparations, particularly to children, as a daily routine for the prevention of colds.”
(27) Wolf, George D. 1946. Colloidal salt nasal tamponades: their use and abuse. Journal of the American Medical Association. 130: 273-276.
“Thus Izar reports that as long ago as the Macedonian era wounds were covered with silver plates…Some of the solutions most frequently encountered, together with the protective colloid each contains, are “Argentum Crede or Collargol (dextrin), Argyrol (vitellin from egg yolk), Dispargin (acid degredation product of gluten), Lysargin (sodium lysalbinate), Protargol (sodium protalibinate), Sophol (nucleic acids and formaldehyde), and Electrargol, an electronically dispersed solution, protected by gelatin…Solutions of mild protein silver used in the form either of nasal drops or of tampons have enjoyed considerable popularity both with the profession and with the public. Up to the present time we have no definite scientific proof or statistical data to support the curative claims or the great enthusiasm expressed by the proponents of this medicated tamponage. Though there is reasonably good evidence against the indiscriminate employment of tamponage, in some well selected instances this treatment produces very satisfactory results.”