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Document 3: Post-1950 Sources Which Describe the Effects of Non-Silver Substances  on the Immune System

May 3, 2004

Robert C. Holladay, MS

Copyright 2004 Robert C. Holladay


(1) Smith, Falconer, et al.  1955.  Effects of parenteral injections of particulate matter on survival of x-irradiated animals.  American Journal of Physiology.  182: 396-399.

            Lorenz showed that injection of bone fragments increased survival rates in irradiated mice.

            Cronkite observed leukocytosis in irradiated dogs after subcutaneous injection of turpentine.

            In an earlier experiment by Falconer, inorganic particulate matter administered parenterally increased survival rates in midlethally irradiated animals.

            An experiment was performed in which particulate matter, including glass, quartz, limestone and calcite was injected in irradiated rats, mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters subcutaneously or intraperitoneally.  Animals were injected within 2 hours of being irradiated in most cases.  Particle size varied from 44-177 microns.  The injections of particulate matter significantly increased the survival rates for all animals except rats.  Survival rates in guinea pigs and mice were significantly higher when smaller particulate matter was injected.  The survival rates in mice injected with glass did not vary significantly when 0.5-100mg was injected.  In mice, the protective action of the particles was only seen when injections were given within 2 days of irradiation.  Differential and total leukocyte counts 5-13 days after irradiation revealed no differences between test and control mice. 

            The author hypothesizes that the protective effect of the particulate matter is due to an enhancement of immune defenses, possibly an inflammatory reaction, against infection which typically follows midlethal irradiation.


(2) Salvido, Emanuele, and William H. Crosby.  1960.  Thrombocytopenia after intravenous injection of India ink.  Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine.  56: 711-716.

            15-20 ml of India ink (25-30 mg per milliliter) was injected intravenously in rabbits.  thrombocytopenia after injection of India ink was due to the temporary sequestration of platelets.  The platelets loaded with India ink particles were detained in the reticuloendothelial system and were thereafter gradually returned to the circulating blood.  Platelets seem to play an important role in the defense mechanism of the animal organism to the invasion of foreign particles.”


(3) Hart, D.A.  1979.  Potentiation of phytohemagglutinin stimulation of lymphoid cells by lithium.  Experimental Cell Research.  119: 47-53.

            “Stimulation of hamster lymph node cells, splenocytes and thymocytes by the mitogen phytohemagglutin-P(PHA) was found to be greatly enhanced by addition of 1-10 mM LiCl to the cultures…The divalent cations Mg2+ (1-10 mM), also had an enhancing effect on PHA stimulation.  However, addition of Li+ to cultures enhanced with Mg2+ and/or Ca2+ led to an additional potentiation of the response to PHA.  These results suggest that Li+ modifies a unique early event during stimulation of lymphoid cells by this mitogen.”


(4) Ramanathan, V.D., P. Badenoch-Jones and J.L. Turk.  1979.  Complement activation by aluminum and zirconium compounds.  Immunology.  37: 881-888.

            “The activation of complement by a number of metal compounds, previously found to induce chronic inflammation, was investigated.  Results obtained were compared with complement activation by inulin and zymosan.  It was shown that complement activation by these metal compounds did not necessarily involve either the classical or the alternative pathways.”


(5) Sharma, D.C. et al.  1980.  Effect of silver, gold & mercury colloids on erythrocyte & iron metabolism.  Indian Journal of Experimental Biology.  18: 1309-1311.

            Rats received intraperitoneal injections of colloidal silver, gold, and mercury.  Injections were given weekly, at a dose of 50 micrograms, until 200-500 micrograms were administered.  Hemolysis was observed in all 3 groups, but was not observed in the control group, which received injections of saline.


(6) Lawrence, David A.  1981.  Heavy metal modulation of lymphocyte activites –II.  Lead, an in vitro mediator of B-cell activation.  International Journal of Immunopharmacology.  3: 153-161.

            “As shown in our previous study, lead (Pb2+) and nickel (Ni2+) had immunopotentiating effects on lymphocyte activities.”


(7) Federic F.  1984.  First experience with intravenous installation of colloidal  carbon in cattle in relation to the incidence of mastitis.  Veterinarni Medicina.  29: 245-254.

            An experiment was performed in which 10 cows 7 to 8 months pregnant were given 3 intravenous injections of 150 mg colloidal carbon in 72 hour intervals.  10 cows were used as controls.  Mastitis did not occur in the test group.  In the control group, there were 2 cases of chronic mastitis and 1 case of acute mastitis. 

            the intravenous installation of colloid carbon nonspecific natural defensive mechanisms of dairy cows, mainly leucocytes, are stimulated, which enhanced the cell readiness to react to infectous process.”


(8) Schwartz, Edward M. et al.  2000.  Tumor necrosis factor-alpha/nuclear transcription factor-kB signaling in periprosthetic osteolysis.  Journal of Orthopaedic Research.  18: 472-480.

            When particles of wear debris from prosthetic implants less than 10 micrometers in diameter is ingested by phagocytes, an inflammatory reaction ensues.  A similar reaction is seen with titanium particles averaging 1-3 micrometers in diameter.


(9) McCabe, Michael J. and David A. Lawrence.  1990.  The heavy metal lead exhibits B cell-stimulatory factor activity by enhancing B cell 1a expression and differentiation.  Journal of Immunology.  145: 671-677.

            Lead stimulates white blood cells in vitro.  Mercury has a similar effect.  Nickel, zinc and cadmium have different effects.


(10) Warner, Garvin L. and David A. Lawrence.  1986.  Cell surface and cell cycle analysis of metal-induced murine T cell proliferation.  European Journal of Immunology.  16: 1337-1342.

            Lead, nickel, and zinc induce T cell proliferation.